Countdown to COP15

Find out more about COP15 and the related events occurring in the run-up to the Conference of Parties, as well as the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework and the role Scotland is playing in helping to reach these targets.

The Conference of the Parties to the CBD, COP15

Logo for COP15 conference Kunming

The first part of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) took place virtually from 11 to 15 October 2021, with the second part reconvening in face-to-face meetings in Montreal, Canada from 7 to 19 December 2022. 

11-15 October 2021 - virtual

The first part of COP15 addressed agenda items considered essential for the continuation of the operations of the Convention and the Protocols.  It included meetings about administrative matters and technical issues related to CBD programmes.

In a ‘high-level segment’ on 12 and 13 October 2021, participants focussed on the development of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

7-19 December 2022 - Montreal, Canada

The second and resumed part of COP15 is expected to address the remaining agenda items, including the completion and adoption of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

Calendar of events

This calendar aims to list online and face-to-face events on preparing for COP15 of interest to Scotland’s biodiversity stakeholders.

Please do send us any additional events you would like to add by contacting [email protected]


7-19 December 2022

COP15: UN Biodiversity Conference Part 2 - meetings resume in-person to conclude negotiations, decide on new Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework and will also include a high-level segment.

The Convention on Biological Diversity

Invited Government Ministers and officials

Montreal, Canada


The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is a stepping stone towards the 2050 Vision of ‘Living in harmony with nature’ adopted as part of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011- 2020.  This states that ‘by 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.

The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will aim to guide actions worldwide until 2030 to preserve and protect nature and its essential services to people.  The Framework will be presented by the Open-ended Working Group for consideration at COP15.  A zero draft of the Framework was published on 17 August 2021.  This sets out the aim to ‘provide a global, outcome-oriented framework for the development of national, and as appropriate, regional, goals and targets and, as necessary, the updating of national biodiversity strategies and action plans to achieve these, and to facilitate regular monitoring and review of progress at the global level’.

The Framework will be implemented primarily through activities at the national level, with supporting action at the subnational, regional and global levels.  In taking that forward Scottish Government has led on developing the ‘Edinburgh Declaration on post-2020 global biodiversity framework’.  This sets out the aspirations and commitments of the Edinburgh Process partners, including regions, cities and local authorities, and the wider subnational constituency, in delivering for nature over the coming decade.  The Framework recognises the need to engage the Whole of Government and the critical contribution of subnational government in meeting biodiversity targets, such as target 12 (Green Infrastructure) and target 14 (mainstreaming).  The Edinburgh Process and Edinburgh Declaration are discussed in more detail on The Edinburgh Process and Edinburgh Declaration page.

For more information, The Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework - EU Support newsletter provides helpful updates, and the CBD website is a good source of information on past agreements.

The Scottish Biodiversity Strategy post-2020 Statement of Intent

In December 2020 the Scottish Government published the Scottish biodiversity strategy post-2020: statement of intent setting the direction for a new biodiversity strategy in Scotland that will respond to the increased urgency for action to tackle the twin challenges of biodiversity loss and climate change.

The Statement of Intent details a wide range of priorities, and it signals our ambitions for Scotland in tackling the twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss, including our commitment to publishing a new, high-level, policy-focused strategy within a year of COP15 which will take account of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, goals and targets and the emerging EU Biodiversity Strategy.

The Leaders’ Pledge

Political leaders participating in the United Nations Summit on Biodiversity in September 2020, representing 88 countries from all regions, and the European Union, committed to reversing biodiversity loss by 2030.  This is set out in the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature: United to Reverse Biodiversity Loss by 2030 for Sustainable Development.

The EU Biodiversity Strategy

The EU’s biodiversity strategy for 2030 is a comprehensive, ambitious, and long-term plan to protect nature and reverse the degradation of ecosystems.  The Strategy aims to put Europe's biodiversity on a path to recovery by 2030 and contains specific actions and commitments.  Whilst the UK is not a member of the EU, the Framework is noteworthy.

The strategy contains specific commitments and actions to be delivered by 2030, including:

  • Establishing a larger EU-wide network of protected areas on land and at sea
  • Launching an EU nature restoration plan
  • Introducing measures to enable the necessary transformative change
  • Introducing measures to tackle the global biodiversity challenge

Nature Positive 2030

NatureScot, together with Natural England (NE), Natural Resources Wales (NRW), Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) have together launched a report ‘Nature Positive 2030’.  It calls on all parts of society for greater action and investment in nature now through a coordinated initiative to halt the decline of nature and begin an upward trend in its recovery by 2030.  The content of the report is consistent with current Scottish Government policy and the document is a useful input to the development of the new Scottish Biodiversity Strategy. 

The report recommends that businesses, organisations, cities, and governments adopt targets to become Nature Positive – putting the crises of biodiversity loss and climate change on an equal footing.  It lists nine priority actions to achieve a Nature Positive UK by 2030 that can be delivered rapidly, by national and local governments, landowners, businesses and others that will have particularly high impacts on reversing biodiversity loss this decade.

The priority actions:

  • Ensuring wildlife thrives within protected areas on land and at sea
  • Better conserving wildlife habitats outside protected areas, in particular, those areas identified as parts of nature networks or as important blue/green infrastructure
  • Investing in habitat restoration and creation to strengthen nature networks that deliver for biodiversity and climate change
  • Ensuring outcomes for nature are integrated into development plans on land and at sea
  • Tackling atmospheric and diffuse water pollution, especially from nitrogen and ammonia
  • Developing the market for green finance
  • Deploying nature-based solutions for climate change mitigation by default
  • Developing the UK’s evidence base so that it is ready to support the larger, transformative changes underway
  • Adopting targets to become nature positive
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