This is woodland on well-drained to rather poorly drained, acidic to neutral soils in the upland parts of Britain, where either pedunculate or sessile oak forms at least 30% of the canopy cover. Other tree and shrub species occur commonly, especially downy birch, silver birch, rowan, hazel and holly. Like upland birchwoods, the field layer is mostly grassy or heathy, but when very heavily grazed can be dominated by large bryophytes. Small herbs, bryophytes and ferns, including bracken, can be very common, and on rocks, banks, trees and shrubs in the west there can be a rich flora of oceanic bryophytes including some uncommon species.
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