This is woodland on base-rich soils, in upland parts of the UK. The tree canopy typically includes ash Fraxinus excelsior, wych elm Ulmus glabra or sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus. Downy birch Betula pubescens, rowan Sorbus aucuparia, hazel, Corylus avellana goat willow Salix caprea, grey willow Salix cinerea, eared willow Salix aurita, bird cherry Prunus padus and alder Alnus glutinosa can occur too. Some examples, particularly in the extreme west, are dominated by hazel. The field layer is typically herb-rich. Bryophytes are generally common and epiphytic floras can be rich, including mosses, liverworts, large foliose lichens and many smaller crustose lichens.